Soon after the introduction of the strip ticket the Dutch transport companies are looking for a replacement. At the end of the 1980's this replacement is expected to be a magnetic strip card. However, a test with a magnetic stripe card is cancelled. In the middle of the 1990's the smart card comes into focus.
There are two types of smart card. The first type is an "electronic wallet". This type of smart card is a replacement for cash money only. The passenger still receives a (paper) ticket. Data about the trip is usually not stored on this type of smart card. On the second type of smart card the right to travel is registered on the chip. The passenger doesn't need a paper ticket any more.
Various smart cards
Through the years there have been numerous smart card tests in Dutch public transport. The OV-chipkaart, a smartcard for all public transport in The Netherlands, is introduced in 2005.
|Smart Card Nederlandse Spoorwegen||1992 - 1993|
|Primeur Card||1995 - 1997||electronic wallet|
|Vervoer op Maat||1995 - 1999||electronic wallet||contact|
|Zeelandkaart||1995 - 1998||electronic wallet||contact|
|Studentenchipkaart||1995 - 1996||electronic wallet|
|Zwolle Card||1995 - 1996||electronic wallet|
|Chipknip||1998 - 2014||electronic wallet||contact|
|Tripperpas||2001 - 2002||contactless|
|OV-chipkaart||2005 - now||contactless|