Soon after the introduction of the strip ticket the Dutch transport companies are looking for a replacement. At the end of the 1980's this replacement is expected to be a magnetic strip card. However, a test with a magnetic stripe card is cancelled. In the middle of the 1990's the smart card comes into focus.

There are two types of smart card. The first type is an "electronic wallet". This type of smart card is a replacement for cash money only. The passenger still receives a (paper) ticket. Data about the trip is usually not stored on this type of smart card. On the second type of smart card the right to travel is registered on the chip. The passenger doesn't need a paper ticket any more.

Through the years there have been numerous smart card tests in Dutch public transport. The OV-chipkaart, a smartcard for all public transport in The Netherlands, is introduced in 2005.

Name Period Type System
Smart Card Nederlandse Spoorwegen 1992 - 1993    
Primeur Card 1995 - 1997 electronic wallet  
Vervoer op Maat 1995 - 1999 electronic wallet contact
Zeelandkaart 1995 - 1998 electronic wallet contact
Studentenchipkaart 1995 - 1996 electronic wallet  
Zwolle Card 1995 - 1996 electronic wallet  
Chipknip 1998 - 2014 electronic wallet contact
Tripperpas 2001 - 2002   contactless
OV-chipkaart 2005 - now   contactless

© 2004-2017